It’s about the abuses documented in the Justice Department

Jeff Sessions blames the ACLU for Chicago’s homicide rate

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canada goose outlet winnipeg In two speeches now, one on May 8 to the Gatlinburg Law Enforcement Training Conference, and then canada goose clearance sale one Monday night to the National Association of Police Organizations (an association of organizations!), Attorney General Jeff Sessions has blamed the ACLU for the surge in Chicago homicides in Canada Goose Online 2016. canada goose outlet winnipeg

canada goose outlet eu The source for this claim by Paul Cassell and Richard Fowles, two professors at the University of Utah. Cassell, it’s worth pointing out, is a former federal judge and defender of law and order policy. (successfully) the Utah police officer who was facing criminal charges for shooting and killing Danielle Willard. (He also blogs at the Volokh Conspiracy, formerly hosted here at The Washington Post, and now hosted at Reason magazine.) canada goose outlet eu

canada goose jacket outlet store In their paper, Cassell and Fowles claim that murders spiked in Chicago because of an agreement between the city and the ACLU thatrequires police in the city to document each street stop they conduct. Note that the agreement does not prohibit the stops. The number of stops plummeted by 75 percent the following year 2016, the same yearthat saw uk canada goose a 60 percent spike in homicides. Cassell and Fowles link the two statistics to come up with the «ACLU effect» cheap Canada Goose that Sessions is touting: canada goose jacket outlet store

canada goose outlet buffalo «We conclude Canada Goose Parka that, because of fewer stop and frisks in 2016, a conservative estimate is that approximately 236 additional homicides and 1115 additional shootings occurred that year. A reasonable estimate of the social costs associated with these additional homicides and shootings is about $1,500,000,000. canada goose uk shop And these costs are concentrated in Chicago’s African American and Hispanic communities.» canada goose outlet buffalo

official canada goose outlet The study has been criticized in a number of places, including by Salvador Rizzo here at The Washington buy canada goose jacket Post, and Canada Goose Coats On Sale by John Rappaport at Slate. The main criticism is that street stops in other cities have also fallen in some places pretty dramatically without a corresponding rise in homicides such as the one we’ve seen in Chicago. official canada goose outlet

canada goose outlet michigan In their paper, Cassell and Fowles dismiss what happened in New York as an «anomaly.» They suggest that the two cities may have seen different results because New York has more police per capita than Chicago. canada goose outlet michigan

canada goose outlet toronto factory Another problem in equating New York’s circumstances with Chicago’s is that the level of police power is different. New York has high levels of law enforcement. For example, if we look to the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports for 2016, New York had 51,399 police employees compared to 13,135 for Chicago, which even when adjusted for population size, means that New York’s overall police force was, on a per capita basis, about 25% larger than Chicago’s. But this comparison fails to capture the true workload differences between the two cities. Using the same crime (homicide) as used by the Crime Lab study, New York had about 153 law enforcement employees for every homicide committed in the city, while Chicago had only about 17 employees for every homicide committed about a 800% difference. canada goose outlet toronto factory

canada goose outlet london But this number is inflated by the NYPD’s substantial bureaucratic bloat NYPD employs about 5,000 people who aren’tuniformed police officers. canada goose outlet london

canada goose outlet germany But New York is far from an anomaly. As Rizzo points out, cities such as Newark, Seattle and Philadelphia also dramatically decreased the number of stop and frisks and didn’t see a Chicago like spike in homicides. Philadelphia, for example, entered into a consent decree in 2011 thatreduced the number ofstop and frisks. Two years later, homicides in the cityhita 45 year low. (The city did see a five year high in homicides in 2017, butalso saw anincrease in gun arrests the same year. Meanwhile, all other violent crime declined.) Rappaport also notes that homicides didspike in other cities in 2016 at rates similar to Chicago, but those cities didnot significantly alter their policies on stop and frisk. All of this suggests that the spike was driven by other factors. canada goose outlet germany

canada goose outlet boston The ACLU itself also responded to the Cassell Fowles study. canada goose black friday sale The group noted that the agreement with the city of Chicago was similar to canada goose factory sale a state law that took effect in 2016 requiring all police agencies in the state to create a record of street stops. None of the state’s other largest cities saw a significant increase in homicides. canada goose outlet boston

canada goose outlet website legit Critics of the study alsopoint out that Illinois has been reducing funding for a number of anti violence initiatives over the past several years, some of which have been found to produce real results. The critics also note a possible phenomenon we’ve discussed at length here at The Watch: As minority communities lose trust in and respect for the police, they stop cooperating with law enforcement. Crime goes up. There’s good anecdotal evidence for this. Crime has spiked in places such as Baltimore, the St. Louis area, Cleveland and Chicago. Perhaps not coincidentally, the Justice Department (before Sessions took over) issued blistering reportsfor each of canada goose uk black friday these cities showing widespread police abuse, little unaccountability for bad cops, rampant racial profiling, and constitutional violations so common that they’re customary. More recently, a study in Milwaukee found that after high profile incidents of possible police abuse,911 calls from black neighborhoodsdeclined. The same researchers found a similar pattern after other high profile Canada Goose sale police shootings in other parts of the country. canada goose outlet website legit

canada goose outlet montreal There’s ample reason for Chicago uk canada goose outlet residents to distrust their police department. The city, of course, saw the release of video of the canadian goose jacket Laquan McDonald video. The city is still sorting out the repercussions from the revelation that for two decades some officers tortured peoplewithout consequence. The recent Justice Department report onthe Chicago Police Departmentwas jaw dropping. A Chicago Reporter Canada Goose Outlet investigation found that between 2011 and 2016, the city paid out over $280 million to settle police brutality lawsuits. In 2015, the canada goose coats Guardian reported that city policetook suspects to «black sites» canada goose uk outlet where they were detained and beaten. canada goose outlet montreal

canada goose outlet uk Over at the Volokh Conspiracy, Cassell haswritten canada goose an unsatisfying response to some of these criticisms. In response to the argument that the state’s decrease (or in some cases, elimination) of funding for anti violence programs may have contributed to the homicide spike, Cassell writes, «For example, Rappaport suggests that a reduction in funding for a social program known as «Ceasefire» might be the cause. An canada goose outlet uk

canada goose outlet real It’s interesting that Cassell favorably cites the Chicago canada goose clearance Crime Lab, becausethe same report is also dismissive of the theory that fewer police stopscaused the murder spike. canada goose outlet real

canada goose factory outlet vancouver As for CeaseFire, thereport’s language isn’t outright dismissive; it only suggests that the timing isn’t conducive to studying cause and effect… the recent deterioration in the financial condition of the state of Illinois, and the resulting budget impasse, seems to have caused disruptions for many community organizations that rely on state funding. The cumulative effect of these service disruptions and their impact on gun violence in 2016, cheap canada goose uk however, is difficult to gauge without more detailed data on their exact magnitude and timing. canada goose factory outlet vancouver

canada goose outlet usa As for the argument that public scandals and high profile shootings such as that of Laquan McDonald may have caused Chicago’s black residents to be less trustful of police, Cassell writes:.. in any event, we collected monthly 9 1 1 call data from Chicago during the canada goose store relevant time period. Directly contradicting Rappaport’s speculative hypothesis, the call data show a longterm downward trend no sharp break around the time of the McDonald video release. It’s about the abuses documented in the Justice Department report. It’s about the hundreds of millions of dollars paid out for police brutality settlements. It is, in fact,precisely the sort of culmination of scandals, reports and day to day interactions that would result in the «longterm downward trend» Cassell describes. Andaccording to Five Thirty Eight, the spike in both fatal and nonfatal shootings began just after the release of the McDonald video in November 2015, not after the implementation of the new policy in January 2016. canada goose outlet usa

canada goose outlet toronto location But the strongest evidence that Chicago residents and black residents in particular are losing trust in their police department is polling data. For example, here’s a Canada Goose Jackets Chicago Tribune editorial about a poll released in February 2016, the same year of the homicide spike that’s the subject of the Cassell Fowles study. canada goose outlet toronto location

canada goose outlet los angeles Most Chicagoans 70 percent of all respondents said they don’t believe police officers treat all citizens fairly. Nearly as many 64 percent said cover ups and a code of silence in the Chicago Police Department are widespread problems. Only 20 percent of respondents said they believe city cops treat all citizens fairly. canada goose outlet los angeles

canada goose outlet location Distrust is rampant citywide, but perceptions vary by race. Among whites, 53 percent said they don’t think the police treat everyone fairly, while one third said they do. But in the African American community, faith in the police to do their job well is practically nonexistent. Do Chicago police treat all citizens fairly? Among blacks, 85 percent said no, while just 6 percent said yes. Among Hispanics: 69 percent said no, while 23 percent said yes. canada goose outlet location

canada goose outlet toronto address A separate 2016 Northwestern study found that among Chicago’s black residentswho had been stopped and frisked, trust in police dropped Canada Goose online by 45 percent. canada goose outlet toronto address

canada goose outlet in uk For comparison,national polling done at about the same timeput overall trust in police at 57 percent, and support among blacks at 30 percent. canada goose outlet in uk

canada goose outlet in montreal Cassell also responds to the criticism that his study focuses only on one city, and that their conclusions about Chicago are contradicted by data from other cities. canada goose outlet in montreal

canada goose jacket outlet uk [Rappaport] also notes that in 2016, other cities had homicide spikes, suggesting that homicides can increase for reasons apart from canada goose coats on sale changes in police tactics. But our research tried to explain what was going on in one important city Chicago where our research tools and data could explore what was happening. Every city has its buy canada goose jacket cheap own story to tell, and we have tried to tell one chapter of Chicago’s canada goose jacket outlet uk.

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